The end of SYMPA and the new Pathways

According to Wikipedia, 'SYMPA is a Mailing list management (MLM) software. Its name, which is an acronym for Systeme de Multi-Postage Automatique (i.e. Automatic Mailing System), also means "nice" (friendly) in French.'

This is the mailing list that we have been using over the last two decades via the University of Sheffield, UK. Recently, I received a notification that SYMPA has been closed down. The new mailing list system is only available for members of the University.

Although it would be possible to use an alternative method of email list management, the decision has been taken to make the Pathways List blog the primary medium for news about Pathways and the ISFP. If you wish to keep up to date, you can follow the blog by email.

We have some exciting news. Tuition for the six Pathways to Philosophy, published on Amazon in Kindle and paperback, is now available. Tutors are listed on the following page:

Profiles from Maya Levanon, Tony Flood and Martin Jenkins — previously Pathways 'Mentors' — have been posted. Esther Shallan and Bruce Gahir will be joining shortly. In time, the list will grow.

The new arrangements allow tutors to negotiate fees and other matters with their clients independently of Pathways. However, as it states on the page, student feedback is important, and I will keep a watchful eye on this. I am here to respond to any feedback and if students praise or complain I will let the tutor know, and, if necessary, take action.

Personally, I feel that this is the opening of a new chapter in the life of Pathways to Philosophy, and hopefully will be the mainstay of the ISFP for years to come.

[Pathways] Contribute to Philosophy Summaries

Hello philosophers,

Recently, a blog has been set up with a few posts. This blog will be an archive of summaries of philosophical works. The link is:

I would greatly appreciate it if you could help me out! The task is simple:

- read a philosophical work
- write a summary, around 2 pages, feel free to include quotes.

Then all you need to do is tell me the title of the work and email your summary to You can include the summary as part of the email or as an attached file.

I will then add it to the collection and yes, I will make sure to include your name.

There is a link to my blog on Dr Klempner's 'Tentative Answers' site

If we are able to build up this collaboration, we will have greatly contributed to ISFP and there will be other benefits.

If you have any questions, please let me know at!

Thank you very much everyone,

Andrew Zhong

[Pathways] The New ISFP

The New ISFP

Today, I have some important items of news regarding the ISFP.

The first you may have already heard about: Life Membership of the ISFP is free and will remain so for the foreseeable future. You can join by following the link at or the link at At the moment we are using two different setups for processing forms but the questions are exactly the same. It doesn't matter which one you use.

The second piece of news is that we have a new, permanent web address at SDF is a public access UNIX host founded in the USA back in 1987. It is one of the few places on the Internet where anyone can have access to the powerful tools of a UNIX server through the command line.

'SDF' are adjacent letters on a computer keyboard, and is also short for 'Super-Dimensional Fortress Macross', a Japanese anime series from 1982 which was later made into a video game.

We are a fortress, in a way, a place of refuge for Independent philosophers around the world. Our principles of inclusion and dialogue ensure that no genuine lover of wisdom is stranded without support.

I have decided to let the old address expire primarily because we are not a 'company' and we are not based in the UK. Until the renewal date for the domain, will continue to forward to, as will the temporary address

The third news item is that we have three new Officers joining Sanja Ivic, Editor of ISFP Publishing:

Martin Jenkins is now responsible for our membership database and receiving submissions for the Associate and Fellowship Awards. He is Secretary of the ISFP. Email

Eric George, the other Admin for this page who set up the GK Public Figure page back in 2012, is the new ISFP Publicity Manager. Email

Lev Lafayette is our new University Outreach Officer. Amongst other activities, Lev is President of the Committee of The Isocracy Network (isocracy org). Email

Eric is from New Zealand, while Lev (coincidentally) is based in Oz, although he hails from NZ. Martin is based in the UK.

Last but not least, the remit of ISFP Publishing has changed. Previously the books on our List were only available on request. From now onwards, we will be making the books we publish available for free download, with no strings (no promises of a 'review'). If you are an author and you want to share your work and are not looking for a commercial publisher then send your manuscript to our Editor Sanja Ivic.

Note that we are only interested in high quality material. The difference between the ISFP and other publishers is that we are entirely non-profit, so the question whether or not your book 'will sell' does not arise. But it has to be good.

You can reach Sanja Ivic at

– That's all for today. If you have any comments or ideas for ways in which we can grow or improve, email me at

Geoffrey Klempner


Geoffrey Klempner

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] The International Society for Philosophers

"The International Society for Philosophers was formed in 2002 in association with the Pathways School of Philosophy to bring together amateur and professional philosophers from all over the world.

"The mission of the ISFP is to "teach the world to philosophize... We believe in freedom of thought and expression but also in the responsibility that goes with that freedom." (ISFP Mission Statement).

"The Board of the ISFP is responsible for examining essay portfolios and dissertations submitted for the ISFP Associate and Fellowship Awards.

"The ISFP publishes the electronic journals, Philosophy Pathways and Philosophy for Business, and runs online conferences for Pathways students and ISFP members.

"On 9th May 2020, there were 2029 ISFP members in 93 countries."

– Taken from the old web site.

From 2002 onwards Pathways to Philosophy and the International Society for Philosophers have been joined together like Siamese twins. What will happen to the ISFP when Pathways comes to an end on 31st December 2020?

I want the Society to continue, no matter what, because the alternative would let down too many people who have invested years of their lives in this project.

As with Pathways, students who have signed up for the ISFP Associate and Fellowship Awards will continue to receive support as long as they need it. However, until the ISFP gets a new, permanent Director of Studies we will not be taking on any new students on the Associate/ Fellowship path.

While we are about it, we could also do with a new Membership Secretary, although I am happy to continue with that function for the time being. I won't be around forever!

As when it was first founded, life membership of the ISFP is once again free. There are no strings. You can opt in or out of the ISFP Open Membership List, and in or out of the Pathways e-list – which has now become the ISFP e-list – hosted, as before, at the University of Sheffield.

I have changed the Blogger address for the e-list archive to It is now known as 'The Pathways List'.

All issues of the Philosophy Pathways and Philosophy for Business e-journals have been archived so that the articles are permanently available on the web at and

The old web site is no more. In its place are just five pages, plus the e-list archive, the essential core. Much of the other material was copied from elsewhere and so is still on the web. You can still use the address which will now forward to

We also have a new, simplified application form currently hosted securely on on a private account at

What are the benefits, now, of joining the ISFP? We are not a Society in the traditional sense. There are no rules or regulations, only an understanding that members should behave in a responsible way, treat one another with respect. We will never ask anything of you, but if you want to contribute, send an email to and we can discuss your ideas!

Long live the ISFP!


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] Pathways to Philosophy: Important Notice

Pathways to Philosophy: Important Notice

On 31st December 2020 the Pathways to Philosophy web site and all associated web pages will be permanently removed from the web.

After that date, pages will still be accessible at, where you can trace the history of the Pathways web sites all the way back to 1997–8.

As from now, there will be very few, if any updates. However, all pages will remain in place until the end date.

Students currently enrolled with Pathways will continue to receive support. However, applications have now been permanently closed.

I have a huge amount of people to thank for their support over the years. First and foremost, the hundreds of students who have enrolled with Pathways going back to 1995, before Pathways went on the web. For a time, a significant proportion of these students were supported by the Pathways mentors working pro bono. Then there are all the contributors to the Philosophy Pathways and Philosophy for Business e-journals, the Panel of Ask a Philosopher, the Board of the International Society for Philosophers, not to forget all the people who have joined the ISFP since it was founded in 2002.

Finally, are many other individuals not included in these groups who have corresponded with me, offered their advice, commented on my writings and given unfailing support. I am grateful to you all.

Why now? That is a far better question than simply, 'Why?' Because everything has a beginning and an end, even (or maybe especially) good things, because I feel now that I have achieved all that I set out to do. Because, I need the maximum amount of time remaining to me to pursue my own personal 'ring quest' in Philosophy.

I have written about this in numerous places. I currently have fifteen books in Kindle eBook and paperback. Here are the titles, in the order in which the books were first published on Amazon:

The Metaphysics of Meaning, 2016
Naive Metaphysics: a theory of subjective and objective worlds, 2016
Ethical Dilemmas: a primer for decision makers, 2016
Philosophizer, 2016
Philosophy Q and A, 2017
Philosophizer (Black Edition), 2017
Philosophizer's Bible, 2019
The Possible World Machine, 2019
Searching for the Soul, 2019
The First Philosophers, 2019
Language and the World, 2019
Reason, Values and Conduct, 2019
The Ultimate Nature of Things, 2019
I Might Not Have Existed But Someone Exactly Like Me Might Have Existed In My Place: the idiotic conundrum, 2020
A Better Ray Gun and Other Tales: twenty sci-fi stories with a philosophical twist, 2020

You can find all the relevant URLs on my CV page Do consider looking up my books on Amazon. There will be more writings in the pipeline, but I cannot say exactly when!

Geoffrey Klempner


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] Review the Pathways to Philosophy Programs on Amazon



Since 1995 when Pathways was first launched, hundreds of students have followed the six Pathways to Philosophy programs.

In 2019 I took the decision to make the six Pathways available as stand-alone books for students who didn't need external support:

- The Possible World Machine
- Searching for the Soul
- The First Philosophers
- Language and the World
- Reason, Values and Conduct
- The Ultimate Nature of Things

The text of each stand-alone book is identical to that of the fifteen unit program, including the five sets of essay questions.

Sadly, to date, only two reviews of the Pathways programs have appeared on and If you enjoyed reading these why not write a review?

Many customers don't realize that you don't need to have purchased a book on Amazon in order to be able to write a review. All you need is to have an account with Amazon that you are actively using.

A review can be as long as an essay, or just one or two lines. It is normal to give five stars unless you feel that the book falls short of your expectations in some way. That's how these things are interpreted.

The same applies to my eight (or nine) books:

- The Metaphysics of Meaning (2016)
- Naive Metaphysics: a theory of subjective and objective worlds (2016)
- Ethical Dilemmas: a primer for decision makers (2016)
- Philosophizer (2016)
- Philosophy Q and A (2017)
- Philosophizer (Black Edition) (2017)
- Philosophizer's Bible (2019)
- I Might Not Have Existed But Someone Exactly Like Me
Might Have Existed In My Place: the idiotic conundrum (2020)
- A Better Ray Gun and Other Tales: twenty sci-fi
stories with a philosophical twist (2020)

If you go to you will find links that you can click that will open a page on Amazon where you can write a review of one or more of my books.

If you go to you will find links that you can click for the six stand-alone Pathways to Philosophy.

I have given links for Amazon US and Amazon UK. If you have an account on a different Amazon just change the URL (to,, or etc.)

I would appreciate it if you would consider writing a review.

Thank you for taking the time to read this post.

If you do not wish to receive any more these emails in your Inbox you can unsubscribe by writing to or going to

Geoffrey Klempner

16th June 2020


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] 'A Better Ray Gun and Other Tales' by Geoffrey Klempner

A Better Ray Gun and Other Tales: twenty sci-fi stories with a philosophical twist

I have published another book, which is available in Kindle format and in paperback from Amazon:


The sci-fi short stories collected in this book were written at two different times. I wrote ten over 1990-1 for philosophy classes run by the WEA, Sheffield. I later used these for first-year tutorial sessions at Sheffield University.

In 1995, my sci-fi stories became the backbone of the first of my six Pathways to Philosophy, 'The Possible World Machine'. Over the years, they have been read and commented on by numerous students from every angle and have stood the test of time.

One of these stories, 'The Black Box' was selected for the 5th edition of 'Doing Philosophy: an introduction through thought experiments' edited by Theodore Schick and Lewis Vaughn, published by McGraw Hill.

This prompted me to have another try, and in 2012 I wrote another ten sci-fi stories. All were around 800 words, more sketches than complete stories and in need of further development. But I kept putting this off until now. The pandemic may well have played a significant part in prompting me to work on these until I was satisfied with the result. Extracts can be found at


A Better Ray Gun
The Black Box
I Love Your Waspish Waist
A Million Dark Years
A Case of Doubt
The Last... What?
A Lesson in Biology
Alien Baby
The Insurance Policy
Perfect Day
The Good Witness
Hare and Hounds
The Fatalists
Hold That Sucker Down
The Ministry of Perception
Go Deep
Space Hopper
That Feeling When
Message From a Lonely Planet

Geoffrey Klempner


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] New book by Geoffrey Klempner

I am pleased to announce the publication of the Kindle version of my new book 'I Might Not Have Existed But Someone Exactly Like Me Might Have Existed In My Place: the idiotic conundrum'. A paperback version will be following soon.

Here is the page for my book:

(The cover design is intentionally provocative.)

From the description:

"This book represents the product of a year's work on a single Question (note the capital letter), which I call the 'idiotic conundrum'. It falls into two Parts, plus an Appendix.

"Part I consists of writing done over July and August 2019. I didn't know then, or hadn't planned that this would turn into a book. I was simply pursuing an investigation, and in each writing session something came to light that I hadn't considered before. I stopped when I ran out of new ideas.

"Part II consists of writing done during May 2020. A new lead had emerged, and I pursued it as far as I could. It ends with a discovery that has forced me to reassess all the work I have done to date.

"In the Appendix, I have placed transcripts of my three recent YouTube videos, which deal with the same Question. These were done in September and December 2019 and February 2020, in between the two pieces of writing."

Geoffrey Klempner


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] 'Metaphyscal Vision' by D. R. Khashaba


Collection of essays presenting my final philosophical statement in the form of a personal metaphysical vision.

Download pdf:

D. R. Khashaba

[Pathways] Public lecture by Zoom: Jane Heal, 11 May

Public lecture by Zoom: Jane Heal

You are cordially invited to join the University of Manchester Philosophy Department for this year's Dorothy Emmet Lecture, coming to you via Zoom.

When: Monday 11 May, 5pm-6.15pm (45 mins talk, 30 mins Q&A)
Speaker: Jane Heal (Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, University of Cambridge)
Title: On Underestimating "Us"

"Human beings are social animals. A solitary life would be horrible for most of us. What makes life worthwhile is being with others and engaging in shared projects with them. To do justice to these facts, philosophers (and economists and other social scientists) need to pay more attention to the first person plural, we/us, and to rethink their accounts of decision making and of value and virtue."

Being a public lecture it should be accessible to all — so if you have any non-philosophy friends who might like to come, or other channels to advertise it on, please do; we can accommodate up to 500 people and would love to have a big audience.

To register, go to:

Or if you want to know a little bit more about it first (or post a link on social media):

With best wishes,

Helen Beebee | Samuel Hall Professor of Philosophy | Department of Philosophy | School of Social Sciences | Humanities Bridgeford Street | University of Manchester | Manchester | M13 9PL |

[Pathways] Open Access philosophy available from Springer

One of my students has alerted me to the fact that a large number of books and articles are currently available free online from Springer publishers:

This link will take you to the results page for Philosophy, excluding 'preview only' (subscription) content -- a massive 387 pages of results. In total, there are 7721 entries.

A veritable bonanza.

Geoffrey Klempner


Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] 'Rethinking Whitehead: A critique of Whitehead's metaphysical cosmology' by D. R. Khashaba


A critique of Whitehead's metaphysical cosmology

Whitehead's Process and Reality is subtitled "An Essay in Cosmology". In this essay I will, with utmost diffidence, try to show that Whitehead, in his inspiringly insightful philosophy of organism, has inadvertently strayed into an unnatural hybrid metaphysical cosmology [...]

D. R. Khashaba

[Pathways] 'What is Philosophy? The Case for Relevance' by Max Malikow

Out on Amazon now:

'What Is Philosophy and Why Study It? The Case for Relevance'

by Max Malikow

The purpose of this book is to make the case for the study of philosophy being as relevant to real life as is the study of psychology. Since I have written for philosophy students I offer a caveat to anyone who has encountered this book apart from an academic assignment: Unavoidably, writing for a specific audience reduces the value of a book for readers who are outside the intended audience. Still, I hope anyone who invests in reading the pages that follow will be influenced to believe that philosophy is indeed relevant to the pursuit of a rich and meaningful life.

Paperback: 98 pages

Published: 20 Feb 2020

ISBN-10: 1733454020
ISBN-13: 978-1733454025

[Pathways] Can anyone teach these philosophical topics over the summer by correspondence?

I have received this somewhat unusual inquiry from Nicola D'Alessandro. If you think that you would be suitably qualified to offer summer tuition via old-fashioned correspondence and/ or telephone please write to me at and I will forward your reply to Nicola.

----- Original message -----
From: Nicola D'Alessandro
Subject: Courses enquiry
Date: Tuesday, 21 April 2020 7:05 PM

Dear sir,

I'm looking for any information you have on correspondence courses and distance learning. I'm trying to find a suitable summer course for a client who is currently studying with the Open University and wants to make use of his summer break. He does *not* have internet access so the correspondence nature of the course is very important - he does have telephone, however!

Areas of interest are: self philosophy, Nietzsche, the Stoics, Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, Socrates. (Off the agenda are ethics and humanitarianism, social philosophy).

If you have any thoughts or ideas then I would be most grateful.

Kind regards,



Pathways School of Philosophy

International Society for Philosophers

Books by Geoffrey Klempner

YouTube channel


[Pathways] 'Philosophy as a Universe of Discourse' by D.R. Khashaba


The way to end the twin evils of dogmatism and interminable disputation in metaphysics.

"Throughout my writings I have been trying to put forward an uncommon conception of the nature of philosophical thinking. In this essay I go back to a concept that I introduced in my first book, 'Let Us Philosophize' (1998, 2008), and that has ever been fundamental to my philosophic outlook, hoping that by further specifying and articulating the concept I it might help men give a clearer and more definite account of metaphysical philosophy as I see it [...]"

D. R. Khashaba

[Pathways] 'Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will' by David Weissman - Open Book Publishers

'Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will' by David Weissman

There is agency in all we do: thinking, doing, or making. We invent a tune, play, or use it to celebrate an occasion. Or we make a conceptual leap and ask more abstract questions about the conditions for agency. They include autonomy and self-appraisal, each contested by arguments immersing us in circumstances we don't control. But can it be true we that have no personal responsibility for all we think and do?

'Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will' proposes that deliberation, choice, and free will emerged within the evolutionary history of animals with a physical advantage: organisms having cell walls or exoskeletons had an internal space within which to protect themselves from external threats or encounters. This defense was both structural and active: such organisms could ignore intrusions or inhibit risky behavior. Their capacities evolved with time: inhibition became the power to deliberate and choose the manner of one's responses. Hence the ability of humans and some other animals to determine their reactions to problematic situations or to information that alters values and choices. This is free will as a material power, not as the conclusion to a conceptual argument. Having it makes us morally responsible for much we do. It prefigures moral identity.

Closely argued but plainly written, 'Agency: Moral Identity and Free Will' speaks for autonomy and responsibility when both are eclipsed by ideas that embed us in history or tradition. Our sense of moral choice and freedom is accurate. We are not altogether the creatures of our circumstances.

This is an open access monograph that is available to read and download for free at Open Book Publishers. If you are interested in browsing this title, sharing the news with your colleagues and students and/or getting your own hard copy you can do so at

[Pathways] 'Eschatology of the Soul' by Richard Schain


A summing-up of the development of my thoughts over many years about the destiny of the soul. It is speculation since I have no way of truly knowing its exact fate. But I have the strong intuition that something resembling my speculations will come to pass for myself -- and for all other human beings.

The Radical Metaphysics of Richard Schain

Richard Schain

[Pathways] 'Metaphysics of Divinity' by D.R. Khashaba


I wish we could have a satisfactory alternative to the term 'God'. The word has over the millennia been encumbered with so many diverse and incongruous meanings and amassed so many unhappy associations that one would wish to leave it out of all philosophical discussion [...]

D. R. Khashaba

[Pathways] Kant: Eight Papers


A fresh approach to a great thinker who has been grossly misunderstood and much abused.


D.R. Khashaba

[Pathways] Call for Papers - Human rights


The French journal Implications Philosophiques has just opened a broad call for paper on the topic of human rights. You may find the details of the call below.

Implications Philosophiques has been publishing special issues on a wide variety of topics since 2009, with a focus on interdisciplinary works where the philosophical methods meets with all the arts and sciences.

Since the mid-twentieth century, human rights seem to have evolved. They have multiplied and been increasingly diversified. New "generations" of rights, different from the original civil and political rights, have flourished.

In that process, human rights seem to have separated more and more from the individualistic conception to which they were closely related at the beginning. Nowadays, human rights seem to relate to a larger - but perhaps more ambiguous - conception of humanity linked to the idea of an equal concern and respect due to every human being. Because of their humanity, humans do not only have fundamental liberties; they also have legitimate aspirations - which may be individual or collective - that must be satisfied.

It is those more recent evolutions which we would like to account for.

In order to provide some guidance to the contributors, we have determined six possible approaches which are exposed below. However, the contributors are not required to choose one of those. Since the subject is very wide and complex, there are certainly other perspectives which would be of great interest. Moreover, for each possible approach we identified, a few references are given. However, those references are only examples. The contributors are not required to use them.

1. Human rights as subjective rights

When talking about human rights, one of the most difficult questions is: what do we mean with the word "right"? Indeed, in that context, that word seems very ambivalent for two reasons.

First, traditionally, human rights were not viewed as legal rights, that is, rights susceptible to be invoked before tribunals to support legal claims. This has only begun to change since the mid-twentieth century. From that point, more and more human rights have been "legalized" but not all of them. There are still a lot of rights which, for professional judges, have no value other than symbolic (for example, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 is not legally binding). For those non-legal human rights, it is therefore unclear what the word "right" means (are they moral rights, political rights? And what does that mean?).

Second, even in the case of "legalized" human rights, the meaning of the word "right" remains unclear as it cannot be understood in its traditional sense, as the positive aspect of a specific debt or obligation (for example, what can be the precise content of the obligation corresponding to a "housing right"?). This also invites us to a broader reflection around the notions of subjective rights and natural rights.

2. Human rights as historical constructions

Human rights have much evolved over time. Their history dates back to the antiquity when the first doctrines of natural law appeared. Therefore, it is certainly very useful to study that historical development in order to properly explain what they are.

Besides, it might also be interesting to study the way human rights influenced the work of the main legal and political philosophers over time. In particular, studying the role that could be assigned to human rights in certain political and moral currents (such as utilitarism, libertarism, liberal-egalitarism, etc.) could be of great interest.

3. Human rights, law and morals

Human rights seem to be at the crossroads of law and morals. Therefore, their study may benefit from an examination of the existing connections between law and morals, as well as the distinction between those two notions (which remains one of the most controversial problems of the contemporary legal philosophy).

4. Human rights, democracy and the separation of powers

With the development of human rights, a new problem has emerged: that of their conciliation with the political ideas of democracy and separation of powers.

Some jurists have argued that the existence of multiple human rights the content of which is sometimes difficult to identify and which, moreover, frequently conflict with each other, provide the judges with the illegitimate power (in a democratic regime) to contradict the will expressed by the people's representatives.

Besides, the French philosopher Marcel Gauchet defended the idea that, because our contemporary democracies have made human rights a central component of politics, they have lost the ability to transform such rights into a real collective political power, leading to the paradoxical situation where, in returning to its original roots, democracy has become its own enemy.

Those criticisms show that the coexistence of human rights, democracy and the separation of powers is more problematic than it seems at first sight.

5. Practical aspects of human rights

It may also be interesting to question the role of human rights in political or altruist activism nowadays.

Especially, thoughts about their role in various philosophical approaches used for studying economic development would probably be very interesting. For example, one may study:

-- the connection between human rights and Amartya Sen's theory of capabilities;
-- the place of human rights in the economic literature on development;
-- the place of human rights in the United Nations' actions as well as in that of other international institutions (such as the World Bank) and of non-governmental organizations.

6. New issues regarding human rights

The more recent political and technological evolutions have raised several new problems regarding human rights.

A first example would be transhumanism and, more broadly, the progresses of medicine and technology. Such progresses should probably lead us to question the very notion of humanity and, thus, the object of what should or could be protected by human rights.

Furthermore, the various debates on animal welfare and artificial intelligence may lead us to question the relevance of the mere idea of "rights for humans": perhaps should we recognize those rights to a broader category of beings.


The contributors must send their proposals (4.000 characters maximum, spaces included) to before 15 April 2020. We will answer each proposal before 30 April 2020. Papers might be written in French or English, provided that the quality of the writing is excellent.

The authors will then have until 30 September 2020 to submit their papers. We expect to publish the papers towards the end of the year.

Some references

Section 1

-- Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld "Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in Judicial Reasoning" in The Yale Law Journal, 1917, Vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 710-770;
-- Ronald Dworkin, Taking rights seriously, Bloomsbury, London, 2013 (especially chapter 7);
-- Joseph Raz, "On the nature of rights" in Mind, XCIII, 370, 1984, pp.194-214;
-- Joseph Raz, "Human rights without foundations" in Oxford Legal Studies, Research Paper No. 14/2007, mars 2007, available at SSRN: or .

Section 2

-- Henri Sumner Maine, Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society, and its Relation to Modern Ideas, J. Murray, 1870 (especially chapters 1 to 5);
-- Jeremy Bentham, Anarchical Fallacies, 1796;
-- Edmund Burke, Reflections on The Revolution in France And Other Writings, Everyman, 2015;
-- Karl Marx, On the Jewish Question, Blurb, 2017;
-- John Rawls, Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, 1999;
-- John Rawls, Justice as fairness: a restatement, Belknap Press, 2001;
-- Robert Nozick, Anarchy, State and Utopia, Basic Books, 2013.

Section 3

-- Herbert L.A. Hart, "Positivism and the separation of law and morals" in Harvard Law Review, Vol. 71, No. 4 (Feb., 1958), pp. 593-629;
-- Lon L. Fuller, The morality of Law, Yale University Press, 1977;
-- Harry W. Jones, "Law and Morality in the Perspective of Legal Realism" in Columbia Law Review, Vol. 61, no. 5, 1961, pp.799-809;
-- Ronald Dworkin, Taking rights seriously, op.cit.;
-- Joseph Raz, "Human rights in the emerging world order" in Transnational legal theory, 2010, no. 1 pp. 31-47.
-- Joseph Raz, The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality, Oxford University Press, 2009.
-- John Finnis, Natural Law and Natural Rights, Oxford University Press, 2011.

Section 4

-- Marcel Gauchet, La democratie contre elle-meme, Gallimard, Paris, 2002;
-- Karl N. Llewellyn, "A realistic jurisprudence - the next step", in Columbia Law Review, Vol. 30, no. 4, 1930, pp.431-465;
-- Jerome Frank, Law and the modern mind, Stevens & Sons Limited, London, 1949.

Section 5

-- Amartya Sen, On ethics and economics, Wiley-Blackwell, 1991
-- Amartya Sen, The idea of Justice, Belknap Press, 2011.
-- Amartya Sen, "Human rights and capabilities" in Journal of Human Development, Vol. 6, Issue no. 2, 2005, pp. 151-166.
-- Martha C. Nussbaum, Creating Capabilities: The Human Development Approach, Belknap Press, 2013.
Section 6

-- #BigData: Discrimination in data-supported decision making , report of the European Agency for Fundamental Rights, September 2018, available at
-- Roberto Manzocco, Transhumanism - Engineering the Human Condition: History, Philosophy and Current Status, Springer, 2019.
-- Stephen Holland, Bioethics: A Philosophical Introduction, Polity, 2016.
-- D.M. Broom, "Animal welfare: concepts and measurement" in Journal of Animal Science, Volume 69, Issue 10, October 1991, pp. 4167-4175.

Best regards

Marc Goetzmann

Lecturer in philosophy, University of Reims Champagne Ardenne
PhD, University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, UCA
Editor-in-chief for

ATER Universite de Reims Champagne Ardenne (URCA)
Agrege de philosophie. Docteur, Universite de Nice Sophia Antipolis, membre de l'Universite Cote d'Azur. Redacteur en chef pour

[Pathways] Georges Kassabgi 'What Gave You That Idea? Rediscovering the Development of Our Worldviews'

What Gave You That Idea?
Rediscovering the Development of Our Worldviews

The first essay was completed in 2012; I  then organized discussions with readers and other interested parties (private and academic settings) which in turn allowed me to write a directly related "Postscripts" by mid-2018. 

In other words, these two documents represent the outcome of a twenty-year long studying/writing project as an independent scholar.

My guiding philosophy (as in "love-of-wisdom" as ancient Greek minds would say) highlights are, inter alia --

-- no human knows everything and as a consequence we use assumptions and/or a selected hypothesis

-- diversity is part of Nature but our world is one (though both material and nonmaterial properties co-exist within)

-- each worldview has value...up to a point

-- at the start of a discussion, let's emphasize that no thing is simple

-- with my essay, I introduce a new hypothesis and present the outline of a multidisciplinary study project

Georges Kassabji

[Pathways] Thales's Well Philosophy Podcast

The Thales' Well podcast explores the world of Philosophy along with Politics, Current Affairs, Literature, and Film. Each episode sees a lively conversation with a leading scholar in their field, discussing and expanding upon an aspect of philosophy very close to their heart. This month we spoke with philosopher and author Lars Iyer about his new novel Nietzsche and the Burbs. 


The podcast is hosted by Dr Patrick O'Connor, Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at Nottingham Trent University, and President of the British Society for Phenomenology. If anyone is interested in promoting their research on Thales' Well please send me an expression of interest. Interviews can be conducted in person or via Skype. 


Thales' Well is hosted on Podbean, but can also be accessed online for free at TuneIn, Player FM, and Stitcher and the other usual podcatchers. You can download apps from all these sites to listen on your smart phone, and you can of course subscribe via iTunes.


You can follow Dr Patrick O'Connor on Twitter @drphilocity.

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[Pathways] The Philosophy of Love (Actually) | Forum for Philosophy

Science, politics & culture from a philosophical perspective

Events are free, open to all, and no registration is required

*The Philosophy of Love (Actually)*
6.30-8pm, Tuesday 4 February 2020
Wolfson Theatre, New Academic Building, LSE

This Valentine's Day, what better pursuit than to overthink relationships? Marking the death of Stanley Cavell, we explore the philosophy of film in general, and the rom-com in particular. Can we take philosophical lesson from film? From* Bringing up Baby* and *Roman Holiday* to *My Big Fat Greek Wedding* and *Love Actually*, what makes a film a rom-com, and can this genre teach us anything about the ethics of relationships?


Sarah Churchwell, Chair of Public Understanding of the Humanities & Professorial Fellow in American Literature, School of Advanced Study, University of London
Robert Hanks, Journalist and critic
Catherine Wheatley, Senior Lecturer in Film Studies, KCL

More information:


The Forum for Philosophy is a non-profit organization that hosts free events open to everyone. We showcase new research from academic philosophers of all traditions, often in conversation with academics from other disciplines, as well as with those from outside of academia. Along with our events, we publish podcasts and contemporary philosophical writing. Find out more:


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[Pathways] Public Understanding of Science Lecture: Democracy, Social Cohesion and Technology; the place of robust knowledge

Oxford University's Department of Physiology, Anatomy & Genetics is hosting a major Public Understanding of Science lecture in March in the Sherrington Building entitled Democracy, Social Cohesion and Technology; the place of robust knowledge, covering a broad and diverse crossover subject matter that will appeal to a large number of the University's staff and students and is being delivered by Sir Peter Gluckman, Chair of the International Network of Government Science Advice and President-Elect of the International Science Council. Our Head of Department would very much like to bring this to the attention of Humanities departments as it should be relevant and of interest to many.

Sir Peter is a former Chief Science Advisor to the Prime Ministers of New Zealand and has served on several IMF and OECD advisory groups related to science and technology and to the digital transition. He has also written and spoken extensively on science-policy, science-diplomacy and science-society interactions and will be pitching the lecture appropriately to a wide audience of both University staff, students and members of the public.

Event details in brief:

Date: Thursday 12 March 2020, 4pm

Location: Sherrington Large Lecture Theatre, Sherrington Building, Off Parks Road
Followed by a drinks reception in the Sherrington reception foyer from 5pm

Title: Democracy, Social Cohesion and Technology; the place of robust knowledge

OxTalks listing with abstract and speaker bio:

DPAG Event page:

[Pathways] The PSR Fails to Prove The Existence of God - by Ferlin F. Pedro


I argue that the 'Principle of Sufficient Reason' (PSR) as a cosmological argument does not warrant the existence of God. In section one, I describe the nature of cosmological arguments, then examine two of its main variations: the 'First Cause' argument and the argument from contingency, and their weaknesses. In section two, I go on to assess Leibniz's PSR, showing that the PSR falls into contradictory terms of necessity and contingency. I conclude that the PSR does not offer adequate justification for God's existence as a necessary Being.


Ferlin F. Pedro

[Pathways] The World Within: Essays by D.R. Khashaba


A collection of philosophical essays making the case that humanity needs a new infusion of spiritual values.


D. R. Khashaba

[Pathways] Symposium: Alone Together Again

This is the second call for papers for the *Alone Together Again* symposium in Szczecin, Poland.

*"We must meet; we must communicate with one another; we must, it would seem, be alone together"* (John Macmurray)

We welcome contributions to the second international pandisciplinary symposium on solitude in community: *Alone Together Again,* which will take place in Szczecin, Poland, between 16th and 18th April 2020. This is organised by the University of Szczecin (Poland) and York St John University (United Kingdom), under the auspices of the Rector of the University of Szczecin. All papers and discussions will be held in English.

We welcome papers on any issues related to solitude, silence and loneliness, from any discipline, and from researchers from all over the world. Our first symposium involved over 30 papers from nine countries, with participants from philosophy, linguistics, psychology, education, theology, business studies, psychology, counselling, gerontology, and more. It resulted in a contract for an academic handbook, and a journal special edition; we have another journal special edition associated with this second symposium. *The* *submission of abstracts will be welcome till the 15th January 2020*. (Later submissions will be considered if there is still room on the programme.)

Detailed information about abstracts, the symposium venue, and booking procedures is available on our website: . The website also has details of the plenary papers already arranged.

If you are able, please pass on this information to networks with which you are involved.

And in the meantime, I hope you have an inspiring new year!

All the best,

Julian Stern and Małgorzata Wałejko
on behalf of the ATA Organizational Committee


Julian Stern
Professor of Education and Religion
York St John University
Lord Mayor's Walk
York YO31 7EX

Tel 01904 876520

Email <>


General Secretary of *ISREV: the International Seminar on Religious Education and Values* ( @ISREV1978 #ISREV

Editor of the *British Journal of Religious Education*.

Latest books **Mastering Primary Religious Education* *(with Maria James,, **A Philosophy of Schooling: Care and Curiosity in Community** (, **Teaching Religious Education: Researchers in the Classroom: Second Edition*** *(, **Can I Tell You About Loneliness?** (, **Virtuous Educational Research: Conversations on Ethical Practice **(, and **Loneliness and Solitude in Education: How to Value Individuality and Create an Enstatic School** (* *

DR Geoffrey Klempner.

          RIP. Dr Geoffrey Klempner (1951-2022).           Absolute pleasure to have known and work with you since 2003. ...